Nice to meet you! A few quick answers… but before you read all of this - my two cents is that you should totally invest in blocs! Its been a real time saver for me and its paid for itself within the first 24 hours of my investment in it.
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol and its how you move files from one location (your development location on your machine) and the server that will host them. You can use something like Cyber Duck on a mac to help you with that, its free to begin with and you can take a look at the website for that to get more information on it. There is no FTP built into BLOCs but there is an awesome export feature that allows you to output the results from BLOCs and then preview and test via a brewers on your local machine. Very nice!
mySQL is a free version of MicroSoft SQL (Structured Query Language) and that is a database standard that a lot of full stack developers use. It’s been around since the 80s, its fast, free and almost ubiquitous for web application developers.
Each hosting account on a server will include a lot of features, including access to mySQL databases. Wordpress uses these, also some e-commerce sites, and many forums and so forth use them. You would know if you needed them because it requires a combination of php code and sySQL queries and that gets fun really quickly! Ever web claims to have a built in blog, and I take that to mean there is some database structure involved there but I didn’t explore too much on it.
Your hosting account will have some kind of control panel for you to use to do some file transfers one at a time, sometimes this control panel is called cPanel, but there are others. You may be on Plesk, or Webmin - just look for the links called ‘file manager’ and that will get you on the way. If you are moving a lot of files at once, Cyber Duck is best. You can zip files and move them, but once you have a live site going, you may find that you don’t want to wipe out changes on your live server with a sweeping replacement. Also - check out the File Manager feature on your hosting account because you can even edit some ‘live’ files directly via that, saves time if its just a spelling error or something like that. That can be both unsettling and exciting, depending on your comfort level.
I hope this helps!